AM Transmission

Professional AM Broadcast Equipment:

Premium Quality

 

Kubva 2002, iine yakakwana AM radio turnkey mhinduro, FMUSER Broadcast kusvika parizvino yakabudirira kupa zviuru zveredhiyo AM kutenderera pasirese. asingakwanisi AM nhepfenyuro zvigadzirwa. Isu takafukidza akati wandei AM nhepfenyuro yekuparadzira inosvika 200KW simba rekubuda, inyanzvi AM bvunzo dummy mitoro, AM test bhenji uye impedance inoenderana unit. Izvi zvinovimbika AM redhiyo nhepfenyuro dzakagadzirwa senge inodhura-inoshanda kutepfenyura mhinduro kune yega yega nhepfenyuro, ichivavarira kuvandudza hunyanzvi hwavo hwekutepfenyura uye kuderedza mutengo wekuvaka nhepfenyuro itsva ye AM kana kutsiva michina.

 

AM Transmitters eRack akaiswa uye Solid State, ese ari kutengeswa kubva ku1KW, 3KW, 5KW, 10KW, 25KW, 50KW, 100KW kusvika 200KW

 

FMUSER's high-power solid-state AM transmitters anosanganisa indasitiri-inotungamira kutepfenyura kuita nedhizaini inodhura. Ese ma AM transmitters akashongedzerwa ne touch screen uye kure yekuwana control system kuitira kuti ive nechokwadi chekuti nhepfenyuro yega yega inogona kudzora kure ma transmit avo muchokwadi. Yakavimbika inobuda inoenderana netiweki inobvumira iyo transmitter kuti igadziriswe uye nekuwedzera kunyatsoshanda kuti ikwane zvakasiyana siyana kutepfenyura zvirimo.

 

FMUSER 200KW AM transmitter 

 

#1 Zadzisa Zvese-mu-imwe Dhizaini: Iyo compact modhi dhizaini yeiyi nhevedzano ye AM transmitters inoita inoshanda modular kugadzirisa uye nekukurumidza kupindura mabasa kuita chokwadi. Iyo yakavakirwa-mukati backup exciter inongovhurika otomatiki mushure mekunge kukanganisa kwaitika, ichipa RF inotakura kune yemagetsi module uye inodzora siginecha modulation. Neaya nyanzvi AM transmitters kubva kumutengesi weChinese FMUSER, iwe uchave uchichinjika uye nekugona kushandisa yakaganhurwa nzvimbo yeredhiyo kuvandudza kushanda kwese kweredhiyo.

 

#2 Yakavakwa-mukati Meter System: Tora otomatiki impedance yekuyera sisitimu inosanganisira otomatiki impedance, voltage, zvazvino, uye magetsi matekiniki, pamwe neakavakirwa-mukati inotungamira coupler yezviyero zvekuyera-yakasimudzwa kune chaiyo mitoro yeantenna kuti ikubatsire iwe mainjiniya kuyera yakatarisana chiteshi kubuda.

 

#3 Yakavimbika Circuit Dhizaini System: Uchishandisa yakasarudzika dunhu kudzikamisa magetsi emagetsi, kudzivirira AC mutsetse voltage shanduko, otomatiki kudzoreredza yakamboshanda mamiriro mushure mekutadza kwemagetsi eAC, overvoltage kana RF kuwandisa, uye kuwana nekukurumidza uye nyore frequency shanduko kugona pasina yakakosha maturusi kana ekunze bvunzo michina.

 

Compact uye modular dhizaini inobvumira kuwana nyore kune ese echikamu solid-state-am-transmitter-rf-components-detail-fmuser-500px
 

FMUSER AM ma transmitters akagadzirwa kuti ashandise nzvimbo shoma yemukati wiring kusvika zvakanyanya - izvi zvinochengetedza mutengo wagara uchidhura wekugadzira michina. Iyo yakanyanya kudhindwa, inopisa-inochinjika dhizaini inobatanidza yakasimba-nyika zvikamu, izvo zvichabatsira yako AM chiteshi kuendesa emhando yepamusoro nhepfenyuro nguva dzose uye nemazvo uye zvakananga kuderedza chiteshi chako chekushandisa mari.

 

Iyo yese-mu-imwe mhepo-inotonhora sisitimu haingopi inoteedzana kuita kwese kuburitsa kweanopfuura makumi manomwe neshanu muzana, asi zvakare inova nechokwadi chehushamwari hwayo kwezvakatipoteredza, zvakananga kana zvisina kunanga kudzikisa kwakawanda kuburitsa kabhoni, hauchadi kuti uwedzere- kunetseka kuti mari dzemagetsi dzepamwedzi dzinodhura here. 

 

Nhepfenyuro ine High End Solid State AM Transmitters!

  

FMUSER High Power Solid State AM transmitter Mhuri: mazita eWIRED Line

 

FMUSER solid state 1KW AM transmitter.jpg FMUSER solid state 3KW AM transmitter.jpg FMUSER solid state 5KW AM transmitter.jpg FMUSER solid state 10KW AM transmitter.jpg
1KW AM Transmitter 3KW AM Transmitter 5KW AM Transmitter 10KW AM Transmitter
FMUSER solid state 25KW AM transmitter.jpg FMUSER solid state 50KW AM transmitter.jpg FMUSER solid state 100KW AM transmitter.jpg FMUSER solid state 200KW AM transmitter.jpg
25KW AM Transmitter 50KW AM Transmitter 100KW AM Transmitter 200KW AM Transmitter

 

Redundant dhizaini maficha uye huwandu hwakakwana hwekuongorora hunobatsira vatepfenyuri kuti varambe vachiona kuita kwakanakisa pamhepo, uye ndiyo FMUSER's AM nhepfenyuro yekuparadzira mhinduro.

 

AM Kuedza Mitoro & Vabatsiri

 

FMUSER, senyanzvi yekutepfenyura AM mutengesi wemidziyo, ine yakanakisa mutengo zvakanakira uye kuita kwechigadzirwa, yakaunza indasitiri inotungamira AM kutepfenyura mhinduro kune gumi nemaviri ezviteshi zvakakura zve AM pasirese. 

 

Kuwedzera kune akati wandei ekupedzisira-akakwira simba AM transmitters anogona kuendeswa chero nguva, iwe zvakare uchawana akasiyana ekubatsira ekushanda neiyo huru system panguva imwe chete, kusanganisira. edza mitoro ine simba rinosvika 100kW/200kW (1, 3, 10kW iripowo), zvemhando yepamusoro test stands, uye antenna impedance yekufananidza masisitimu

 

Kusarudza FMUSER's AM kutepfenyura mhinduro kunoreva kuti iwe uchiri kukwanisa kuvaka seti yakakwana yeyepamusoro-inoita AM kutepfenyura system nemutengo wakaderera - iyo inovimbisa kunaka, hupenyu hwakareba uye kuvimbika kwechiteshi chako chakakura.

 

PFUNGWA DZICHIBUDA

                  • Resistive Loads
                  • RF Mitoro (ona Catalogue)
                  • CW inotakura masimba anosvika MW renji
                  • Pulse modulator inoremedza kune yakanyanyisa peak masimba
                  • RF matrix switch (coaxial/symmetrical)
                  • Baluns uye mitsetse yekudyisa
                  • High Voltage Cables
                  • Aaxiliary control/monitoring systems
                  • Redundant kuchengetedza masisitimu
                  • Kuwedzera kusanganisa sarudzo pakukumbira
                  • Module Test Stands
                  • Zvishandiso uye Chishandiso Chinokosha

 

#1 Solid-state AM Transmitter Test Mitoro

 

Mazhinji FMUSER RF amplifiers, transmitters, magetsi emagetsi kana modulators anoshanda pakakwirira zvakanyanya- uye avhareji-masimba. Izvi zvinoreva kuti hazvibviri kuedza masisitimu akadaro nemitoro yavanoda pasina njodzi yekukuvadza mutoro. Uyezve, iine simba rakadai rekubuda, iwo epakati wave transmitters anodiwa kuti achengetedzwe kana kuyedzwa imwe neimwe nguva yenguva, nekudaro muyedzo wemhando yepamusoro inofanirwa kunhepfenyuro. Iyo miyedzo mitoro inogadzirwa neFMUSER yakabatanidza zvese zvinodikanwa mune zvese-mu-imwe kabati, iyo inobvumira kure kure uye otomatiki & manyore switch - zvechokwadi, izvi zvinogona kureva zvakawanda kune chero AM nhepfenyuro system manejimendi.

 

 FMUSER AM Bvunzo Inotakura Mhuri: kusvika ku200KW

 

1KW, 3KW, 10KW solid state AM transmtter dummy load.jpg 100KW AM dummy load.jpg 200KW AM dummy load.jpg
1, 3, 10KW AM bvunzo mutoro 100KW AM transmitter bvunzo mutoro 200KW AM transmitter bvunzo mutoro

 

#2 FMUSER's AM Module Test Stands

 

Iwo anomira ebvunzo anonyanya kugadzirwa kuti ave nechokwadi chekuti AM transmitters ari mumamiriro akanaka ekushanda mushure mekugadziriswa kwebuffer amplifier uye simba amplifier board. Kana uchinge wapfuura bvunzo, iyo transmitter inogona kushanda zvakanaka - izvi zvinobatsira kudzikisa chiyero chekutadza uye kumiswa.

 

AM transmitter test bhenji

 

#3 FMUSER's AM Antenna Impedance Matching System

 

Kune AM transmitter antennas, mamiriro ekunze anoshanduka senge kutinhira, kunaya uye hunyoro, nezvimwe ndizvo zvinhu zvakakosha zvinokonzeresa kutsauswa kweiyo impedance (50 Ω semuenzaniso), ndizvo chaizvo chikonzero nei impedance yekufananidza system ichidiwa - kufananidzazve antenna impedance. . AM kutepfenyura antennas anowanzo hombe muhukuru uye ari nyore kumisa kutsauka, uye FMUSER's isingabatanidzi impedance system yakagadzirirwa kune inogadzirisa impedance gadziriso ye AM kutepfenyura antennas. Kana iyo AM antenna impedance yatsauka ne50 Ω, iyo inogadziriswa sisitimu inogadziridzwa kuti idzokorore iyo impedance yemodulation network kusvika 50 Ω, kuitira kuti uve nechokwadi chemhando yepamusoro yekutapurirana kwe AM transmitter yako.

 

AM antenna impedance system

AM antenna impedance unit

 

 

Kuganhurirwa kweAmplitude Modulation

1. Yakaderera Kubudirira - Sezvo simba rinobatsira riri mumabhendi madiki riri diki, saka kushanda kwe AM system kwakadzikira.

 

2. Limited Operating Range - Kuwanda kwekushanda kuduku nekuda kwekushanda kwakaderera. Saka, kutapurirana kwezviratidzo kwakaoma.

 

3. Noise muReception - Sezvo mugamuchiri weredhiyo achiona zvichinetsa kusiyanisa pakati pemakuriro akasiyana-siyana anomiririra ruzha neaya ane masaini, ruzha rukuru rwunowanzoitika mukugamuchira.

 

4. Hunhu Hwakashata Hweaudio -Kuwana kutendeseka kwepamusoro, mafambiro ese ekuteerera kusvika 15 KiloHertz anofanirwa kudhindwa uye izvi zvinoda bandwidth ye10 KiloHertz kuderedza kukanganiswa kunobva kune nhepfenyuro dziri pedyo. Saka mu AM nhepfenyuro yemhando yeaudio inozivikanwa kuve yakashata.

Kushandisa & Kushandiswa kweAmplitude Modulation

1. Nhepfenyuro dzeredhiyo

2. Nhepfenyuro dzeTV

3. Gonhi regaraji rinovhura maremote asina keyless

4. Inotumira zviratidzo zveTV

5. Short wave radio communications

6. Two way radio communication

Kuenzanisa kwakasiyana AM

VSB-SC

1. tsananguro -A vestigial sideband (mukutaurirana neredhiyo) ibhande repadivi rakadimburwa chikamu kana kudzvinyirirwa.

2. kunyoresa -Nhepfenyuro yeTV & kutepfenyura redhiyo

3. tizvishandise - Inotumira zviratidzo zveTV

SSB-SC

1. tsananguro -Single-sidebandmodulation (SSB) iko kunatsiridza kweamplitude modulation iyo inonyanya kushandisa simba remagetsi uye bandwidth.

2. kunyoresa - Nhepfenyuro yeTV & nhepfenyuro yeShortwave Radio

3. tizvishandise - Shortwave radio communications

DSB-SC

1. tsananguro -Mukutaurirana neredhiyo, parutivi bhendi ibhendi remafrequency akakwira kupfuura kana kudzika kupfuura frequency yekutakura, ine simba semhedzisiro yemaitiro ekugadzirisa.

2. kunyoresa -Nhepfenyuro yeTV & kutepfenyura redhiyo

3. tizvishandise - 2-nzira redhiyo kutaurirana

 

PARAMETER

VSB-SC

SSB-SC

DSB-SC

tsananguro

A vestigial sideband (mukutaurirana neredhiyo) ibhande repadivi rakadimburwa chikamu kana kudzvinyirirwa.

Single-sidebandmodulation (SSB) iko kunatsiridza kweamplitude modulation iyo inonyanya kushandisa simba remagetsi uye bandwidth.

Mukutaurirana neredhiyo, bhendi repadivi ibhendi remafrequency akarikwira kupfuura kana kudzika kupfuura frequency yekutakura, ine simba semhedzisiro yemaitiro ekugadzirisa.

 

 

kunyoresa

Nhepfenyuro dzeTV & kutepfenyura kweRadio

Nhepfenyuro dzeTV & nhepfenyuro yeShortwave Radio

Nhepfenyuro dzeTV & kutepfenyura kweRadio

tizvishandise

Inotumira zviratidzo zveTV

Shortwave radio communications

2-nzira redhiyo kutaurirana

A Complete Guide to Amplitude Modulations (AM)

Chii chinonzi Amplitude Modulation (AM)?

- "Modulation inzira yekusimudzira yakaderera frequency chiratidzo pane yakakwira frequency mutakuri chiratidzo."

 

- "Iyo modulation maitiro anogona kutsanangurwa sekusiyanisa iyo RF inotakura wave zvinoenderana nehuchenjeri kana ruzivo mune yakaderera frequency chiratidzo."

 

- "Modulation inotsanangurwa sekutanga iyo mamwe maitiro, kazhinji amplitude, frequency kana chikamu, chemutakuri chinosiyana zvichienderana nekukosha kwepakarepo kweimwe imwe voltage, inonzi modulating voltage."

Nei Kuchinja Kunodiwa?

1. Kana mapurogiramu maviri enziyo akaridzwa panguva imwe chete mukati medaro, zvingava zvakaoma kuti munhu upi noupi ateerere kune imwe sosi orega kunzwa manyuko echipiri. Sezvo kurira kwese kwemumhanzi kuine anenge ma frequency renji, gadzira anenge 50 Hz kusvika 10KHz. Kana chirongwa chaunoda chichikwidzwa kusvika kubhendi remafrequency ari pakati pe100KHz ne110KHz, chirongwa chechipiri chichikwira kuenda kubhendi pakati pe120KHz ne130KHz, Zvino zvirongwa zvese zvakapa 10KHz bandwidth uye muteereri anogona (nekusarudza bhendi) kutora chirongwa. nesarudzo yake. Iye anogashira aizodzika achichinja chete bhendi rakasarudzwa remafrequency kuenda kumhando yakakodzera ye50Hz kusvika 10KHz.

 

2. Chimwe chikonzero chechipiri chehunyanzvi chekuchinja chiratidzo chemeseji kune yakakwira frequency inoenderana nehukuru hweantenna. Izvo zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa kuti saizi yeantenna inopindirana neiyo frequency yekuratidzwa. Aya ndiwo 75 metres pa1 MHz asi pa15KHz yawedzera kusvika pa5000 metres (kana kungopfuura 16,000 tsoka) antenna yakatwasuka yesaizi iyi haigoneke.

 

3. Chikonzero chechitatu chekugadzirisa high frequency carrier ndechekuti RF (redhiyo frequency) simba richafamba chinhambwe chikuru pane yakaenzana simba rinofambiswa sesimba rekurira.

Mhando dzekusiyanisa

Chiratidzo chekutakura iine wave pane inotakura frequency. Pazasi equation inoratidza kuti sine wave ine matatu maitiro anogona kushandurwa.

 

Instantaneous voltage (E) =Ec(max)Sin(2πfct + θ)

 

Izwi ringangove rakasiyana ndeye inotakura voltage Ec, inotakura frequency fc, uye inotakura chikamu angle. θ. Saka mafomu matatu ekuchinja anogoneka.

1. Amplitude Modulation

Amplitude modulation kuwedzera kana kuderera kweiyo inotakura voltage (Ec), zvimwe zvinhu zvese zvinosara zvisingaite.

2. Frequency Modulation

Frequency modulation ishanduko mune inotakura frequency (fc) nezvimwe zvese zvinosara zvisingaite.

3. Phase Modulation

Phase modulation shanduko mune yekutakura chikamu angle (θ) Chikamu chekona hachigone kuchinja pasina kukanganisawo shanduko yehuwandu. Naizvozvo, chikamu modulation chiri muchokwadi chimiro chechipiri che frequency modulation.

TSANANGURO YEAM

Iyo nzira yekusiyanisa amplitude yeakakwira frequency carrier wave zvinoenderana neruzivo rwunozofambiswa, kuchengetedza frequency uye chikamu cheiyo inotakura wave isina kuchinjika inonzi Amplitude Modulation. Iyo ruzivo inoonekwa seye modulating chiratidzo uye inokwidziridzwa pane inotakura wave nekushandisa ese ari maviri kune modulator. Iyo yakadzama dhizaini inoratidza amplitude modulation process inopiwa pazasi.

 

 

Sezvinoratidzwa pamusoro, iyo inotakura wave ine yakanaka uye yakaipa hafu mitsetse. Ese madenderedzwa aya anosiyana zvichienderana neruzivo rwunozotumirwa. Mutakuri anobva aita sine mafungu ayo amplitudes anotevera maamplitude akasiyana eiyo modulating wave. Mutakuri anochengetwa muhamvuropu yakagadzirwa nemodulating wave. Kubva pane iyo nhamba, iwe unogona zvakare kuona kuti iyo amplitude mutsauko weiyo yakakwira frequency inotakura iri paiyo frequency yechiratidzo uye kuwanda kweiyo inotakura wave yakafanana nekuwanda kweiyo wave wave.

Kuongororwa kweAmplitude Modulation Carrier Wave

Rega vc = Vc Sin wct

vm = Vm Sin wmt

 

vc - Kukosha kwepakarepo kwemutakuri

Vc - Peak kukosha kwemutakuri

Wc - Angular velocity yemutakuri

vm -Kukosha kwepakarepo kweiyo modulating chiratidzo

Vm -Kunyanya kukosha kweiyo modulating chiratidzo

wm - Angular velocity yeiyo modulating chiratidzo

fm - Modulating chiratidzo frequency

 

Izvo zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa kuti chikamu chekona chinoramba chiripo mukuita uku. Nokudaro inogona kufuratirwa.

 

Izvo zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa kuti chikamu chekona chinoramba chiripo mukuita uku. Nokudaro inogona kufuratirwa.

 

Iyo amplitude yemutakuri wave inosiyana pa fm. Iyo amplitude modulated wave inopiwa ne equation A = Vc + vm = Vc + Vm Sin wmt.

= Vc [1+ (Vm/Vc Sin wmt)]

 

= Vc (1 + mSin wmt)

 

m - Modulation Index. Chiyero cheVm/Vc.

 

Pakarepo kukosha kweamplitude modulated wave inopiwa ne equation v = A Sin wct = Vc (1 + m Sin wmt) Sin wct

 

= Vc Sin wct + mVc (Sin wmt Sin wct)

 

v = Vc Sin wct + [mVc/2 Cos (wc-wm)t – mVc/2 Cos (wc + wm)t]

 

Equation iri pamusoro inomiririra huwandu hwemasaisai matatu. Imwe ine amplitude yeVc uye frequency yewc/2, yechipiri ine amplitude yemVc/2 uye frequency ye (wc - wm)/2 uye yechitatu ine amplitude yemVc/2 uye frequency ye (wc). + wm)/2 .

 

Mukuita iyo angular velocity yemutakuri inozivikanwa kuve yakakura kupfuura angular velocity yemodulating chiratidzo (wc >> wm). Saka, yechipiri neyechitatu cosine equations iri padyo neiyo frequency yekutakura. Iyo equation inomiririrwa nemifananidzo sezvakaratidzwa pasi apa.

Frequency Spectrum ye AM Wave

Lower side frequency – (wc – wm)/2

Yepamusoro side frequency - (wc +wm)/2

 

Iwo ma frequency ezvikamu aripo mu AM wave anomiririrwa nemitsara yakatwasuka inenge iri padivi pe frequency axis. Kureba kwemutsara wega wega wakatwasuka unoenderana neamplitude yayo. Sezvo angular velocity yemutakuri yakakura kudarika angular velocity yemodulating siginecha, iyo amplitude yedivi bhendi frequencies haigone kudarika hafu yeanotakura amplitude.

 

Saka hapazove neshanduko muhuwandu hwepakutanga, asi mabhendi eparutivi (wc - wm)/2 uye (wc +wm)/2 achashandurwa. Iyo yekutanga inonzi yekumusoro bhendi bhendi (USB) frequency uye iyo gare gare inozivikanwa seyezasi side bhendi (LSB) frequency.

 

Sezvo chiratidzo che frequency wm/2 chiripo mumabhendi eparutivi, zviri pachena kuti chinotakura magetsi hachifambisi chero ruzivo.

 

Maviri eparutivi mabhendi ma frequency anogadzirwa kana mutakuri ari amplitude akagadziridzwa neakawanda frequency. Kureva kuti AM wave ine bhendi hupamhi kubva (wc - wm)/2 kusvika (wc +wm)/2, kureva, 2wm/2 kana kaviri frequency yechiratidzo inogadzirwa. Kana iyo modulating siginecha iine anopfuura imwe frequency, maviri edivi bhendi ma frequency anogadzirwa neakawanda frequency. Saizvozvo kune maviri ma frequency eiyo modulating siginecha 2 LSB's uye 2 USB's frequency ichagadzirwa.

 

Iwo mabhendi epadivi emafrequency aripo pamusoro peiyo inotakura frequency ichafanana neiyo iripo pazasi. Iwo epadivi bhendi mafrequency aripo pamusoro peiyo inotakura frequency inozivikanwa seyepamusoro side bhendi uye ese ari pasi peiyo inotakura frequency ndeyeyezasi side bhendi. Iwo ma USB frequency anomiririra mamwe emunhu ega ega modulating frequency uye iyo LSB frequency inomiririra mutsauko pakati peiyo modulating frequency uye inotakura frequency. Iyo yakazara bandwidth inomiririrwa maererano neiyo yepamusoro modulating frequency uye yakaenzana nekaviri iyi frequency.

Modulation Index (m)

Huyero pakati pekuchinja kweamplitude ye carrier wave kune amplitude yeyakajairika carrier wave inonzi modulation index. Inomiririrwa nebhii ‗m'.

 

Iyo inogona zvakare kutsanangurwa senge renji umo iyo amplitude yemutakuri wave inosiyana neiyo modulating chiratidzo. m = Vm/Vc.

 

Mazana ekuchinja, %m = m*100 = Vm/Vc *100

Iyo percentage modulation iri pakati pe0 ne80%.

 

Imwe nzira yekuratidza iyo modulation index iri maererano nehupamhi uye hudiki hunokosha hweamplitude yemodulated carrier wave. Izvi zvinoratidzwa mumufananidzo uri pasi apa.

 

 

2 Vin = Vmax - Vmin

 

Vin = (Vmax – Vmin)/2

 

Vc = Vmax – Vin

 

= Vmax – (Vmax-Vmin)/2 =(Vmax + Vmin)/2

Kutsiva kukosha kweVm neVc muequation m = Vm/Vc, tinowana

 

M = Vmax – Vmin/Vmax + Vmin

 

Sezvambotaurwa, kukosha kwe ‗m' kuri pakati pe0 ne0.8. Kukosha kwem kunotarisa simba uye kunaka kwechiratidzo chinotapurirwa. Mune AM wave, chiratidzo chirimo mukusiyana kweanotakura amplitude. Iyo odhiyo chiratidzo chinofambiswa ichave isina kusimba kana inotakura wave ichingogadziriswa kusvika padiki dhigirii. Asi kana kukosha kwem kuchipfuura kubatana, iyo transmitter inoburitsa inoburitsa kukanganisa kunokanganisa.

Simba Relations mune AM wave

A modulated wave ine simba rakawanda kupfuura raive necarrier wave isati yachinja. Iwo akazara masimba emagetsi muamplitude modulation anogona kunyorwa se:

 

Ptotal = Pcarrier + PLSB + PUSB

 

Tichifunga nezvekuwedzera kuramba senge antenna kuramba R.

 

Pcarrier = [(Vc/2)/R]2 = V2C/2R

 

Rimwe nerimwe bhendi redivi rine kukosha kwem/2 Vc uye rms kukosha kwemVc/22. Saka simba muLSB uye USB rinogona kunyorwa se

 

PLSB = PUSB = (mVc/22) 2/R = m2/4*V2C/2R = m2/4 Pcarrier

 

 

Ptotal = V2C/2R + [m2/4*V2C/2R] + [m2/4*V2C/2R] = V2C/2R (1 + m2/2) = Pcarrier (1 + m2/2)

 

Mune mamwe maapplication, mutakuri anogadziriswa panguva imwe chete neanoverengeka sinusoidal modulating masaini. Muchiitiko chakadaro, iyo yakazara modulation index inopiwa se

Mt = (m12 + m22 + m32 + m42 + .....

 

Kana Ic uye Iwo ari iwo ma rms eiyo unmodulated ikozvino uye yakazara modulated ikozvino uye R ndiko kupikisa uko aya anoyerera anoyerera, ipapo.

 

Ptotal/Pcarrier = (It.R/Ic.R)2 = (It/Ic)2

 

Ptotal/Mutakuri = (1 + m2/2)

 

It/Ic = 1 + m2/2

 

Amplitude Modulation (AM) FAQ

1. Define modulation?

Modulation inzira iyo mamwe maitiro eiyo yakakwirira frequency inotakura chiratidzo inosiyana zvichienderana nekukosha kwepakarepo kweiyo modulating chiratidzo.

2. Ndeapi marudzi eanalogi modulation?

Amplitude modulation.

Angle Modulation

Frequency vachisiyanisa inzwi

Phase modulation.

3. Tsanangura kudzika kwemodulation.

Inotsanangurwa sereshiyo pakati pemeseji amplitude kune iyo yekutakura amplitude. m=Em/Mup

4. Ndeapi madhigirii ekusiyanisa inzwi?

Under modulation. m <1

Yakakosha modulation m=1

Kupfuura modulation m>1

5. Chii chinodiwa pakusiyanisa inzwi?

Zvinodiwa pakugadzirisa:

Kureruka kwekutapurirana

Zvakawanda

Ruzha rwakaderedzwa

Narrow bandwidth

Frequency assignment

Deredza miganhu yemidziyo

6. Ndedzipi mhando dze AM modulators?

Kune marudzi maviri e AM modulators. Vari

- Linear modulators

- Non-linear modulators

 

Linear modulators akaiswa sezvinotevera

Transistor modulator

 

Kune matatu marudzi e transistor modulator.

Muunganidzi modulator

Emitter modulator

Base modulator

Kuchinja modulators

 

Non-linear modulators akaiswa sezvinotevera

Square mutemo modulator

Product modulator

Yakadzikama modulator

7. Ndeupi musiyano uripo pakati peyero yepamusoro uye yakaderera mwero modulation?

Mune yakakwirira level modulation, iyo modulator amplifier inoshanda pamazinga emagetsi epamusoro uye inopa simba zvakananga kune antenna. Mune yakaderera level modulation, iyo modulator amplifier inoita modulation pane yakaderera simba mazinga. Iyo modulated siginecha inozokwidziridzwa kusvika yakakwira simba nhanho nekirasi B simba amplifier. Iyo amplifier inopa simba kune antenna.

8. Define Detection (kana) Demodulation.

Detection ndiyo maitiro ekubvisa modulating siginecha kubva kune modulated inotakura. Mhando dzakasiyana dzema detectors anoshandiswa pamhando dzakasiyana dzemodulation.

9. Tsanangura Amplitude Modulation.

Mune amplitude modulation, iyo amplitude yechiratidzo chekutakura inosiyana zvichienderana nekusiyana kweamplitude yemodulating chiratidzo.

 

Chiratidzo che AM chinogona kumiririrwa nemasvomhu se, eAM = (Ec + Em sinωmt ) sinωct uye modulation index inopiwa se,m = Em/EC (kana) Vm/Vc.

10. Chii chinonzi Super Heterodyne Receiver?

Iyo yepamusoro heterodyne inogamuchira inoshandura ese anouya RF ma frequency kune yakagadziriswa yakaderera frequency, inonzi yepakati frequency (IF). Iyi IF inobva yaita amplitude uye yaonekwa kuti iwane chiratidzo chepakutanga.

11. Chii chinonzi single toni uye multi toni modulation?

- Kana modulation ichiitirwa meseji siginecha ine inodarika imwe frequency chikamu saka modulation inodaidzwa kuti multi tone modulation.

- Kana modulation ichiitirwa meseji siginecha ine imwe frequency chikamu saka modulation inodaidzwa kuti single toni modulation.

12. Enzanisa AM neDSB-SC uye SSB-SC.

S.No

AM chiratidzo

DSB-SC

SSB-SC

1

Bandwidth 2fm

Bandwidth 2fm

Bandwidth fm

2

Ine USB, LSB, Mutakuri

Ine USB.LSB

USB.LSB

3

Rakawanda Simba rinodiwa pakufambisa

Simba rinodiwa ishoma pane reAM

Simba rinodiwa ishoma pane AM & DSB-SC

13. Ndezvipi zvakanakira VSB-AM?

-Iyo ine bandwidth yakakura kupfuura SSB asi yakaderera pane DSB system.

-Simba rekufambisa rakakura kupfuura DSB asi rakaderera pane SSB system.

- Hapana yakaderera frequency chikamu chakarasika. Saka inodzivirira kukanganiswa kwechikamu.

14. Iwe uchagadzira sei DSBSC-AM?

Pane nzira mbiri dzekugadzira DSBSC-AM senge

- Yakaenzana modulator

- Mhete modulators.

15. Ndezvipi zvakanakira ring modulator?

- Kubuda kwayo kwakagadzikana.

-Hazvidi simba rekunze sosi kuti riite ma diode. c).Panenge pasina kuchengetedza.

- Hupenyu hurefu.

16. Tsanangura Demodulation.

Demodulation kana kuona ndiyo nzira iyo modulating voltage inodzoserwa kubva kune yakagadziridzwa chiratidzo. Iri reverse process ye modulation. Midziyo inoshandiswa kudhiza kana kuona inonzi demodulators kana ma detectors. Kune amplitude modulation, ma detectors kana demodulators akaiswa mumapoka se: 

 

- Square-mutemo detectors

Envelope detectors

17. Tsanangura Multiplexing.

Multiplexing inotsanangurwa senzira yekufambisa akati wandei masaini masaini Panguva imwe chete pamusoro pechiteshi chimwe chete.

18. Tsanangura Frequency Division Multiplexing.

Frequency division multiplexing inotsanangurwa sezvikwangwani zvakawanda zvinofambiswa panguva imwe chete nechiratidzo chega chega chinogara chakasiyana frequency slot mukati meyakajairika bandwidth.

19. Tsanangura Guard Band.

Guard Mabhendi anounzwa muchikamu cheFDM kuitira kudzivirira chero kukanganisa pakati pematanho ari padyo. Kupamhama mabhande evarindi, Diki kupindira.

20. Tsanangura SSB-SC.

- SSB-SC inomirira Single Side Band Suppressed Carrier

Kana bhendi rimwe chete richifambiswa, modulation inodaidzwa seSingle side band modulation. Inonzi zvakare seSSB kana SSB-SC.

21. Tsanangura DSB-SC.

Mushure mekugadzirisa, maitiro ekufambisa mabhandi epadivi (USB, LSB) ega uye kudzvanyirira mutakuri anodaidzwa seDouble Side Band-Suppressed Carrier.

22. Ndezvipi zvakaipira DSB-FC?

-Kuparara kwesimba kunoitika muDSB-FC

DSB-FC ndeye bandwidth isingashande system.

23. Define Coherent Detection.

Munguva yeDemodulation mutakuri anonyatso kuwirirana kana kuwiriraniswa mune zvese frequency uye chikamu, neiyo yekutanga inotakura wave inoshandiswa kugadzira iyo DSB-SC wave.

 

Iyi nzira yekuona inodaidzwa sekuonekwa kwakabatana kana kuona kwakafanana.

24. Chii chinonzi Vestigial Side Band Modulation?

Vestigial Sideband Modulation inotsanangurwa semodulation umo imwe yedivi bhendi inodzvinyirirwa zvishoma uye chisaririra cherimwe bhendi repadivi chinofambiswa kutsiva kudzvinyirirwa ikoko.

25. Ndezvipi zvakanakira chiratidzo sideband kutapurirana?

- Simba rekushandisa

Bandwidth kuchengetedza

- Kuderedza ruzha

26. Ndezvipi zvazvakaipira zve single side band transmission?

Complex vanogamuchira: Single side bhendi masisitimu inoda zvakanyanya kuomarara uye zvinodhura zvinogamuchira thn conventiaonal AM kutapurirana.

Tuning matambudziko: Single side bhendi inogamuchira inoda yakanyanya kuoma uye chaiyo tunig pane yakajairwa AM inogamuchira.

27. Enzanisa mutsara uye isiri-mutsara modulators?

Linear Modulators

- Heavy kusefa hakudiwi.

- Aya ma modulators anoshandiswa mune yakakwira level modulation.

- Iyo inotakura voltage yakakura kwazvo kupfuura modulating signal voltage.

Kwete Linear Modulators

- Kusefa kwakanyanya kunodiwa.

- Aya ma modulators anoshandiswa mune yakaderera level modulation.

- Iyo modulating chiratidzo voltage yakakura kwazvo kupfuura inotakura chiratidzo voltage.

28. Chii chinonzi frequency kududzira?

Ngatitii chiratidzo bhendi rinogumira kune frequency renji inotambanukira kubva paf1 kuenda kune frequency f2. Maitiro ekushandura ma frequency nderimwe umo chiratidzo chepakutanga chinotsiviwa nechiratidzo chitsva chine spectral renji rinobva paf1' uye f2' uye iyo chiratidzo chitsva chinotakura, muchimiro chinodzoreredza ruzivo rwakafanana nerwakatakurwa nechiratidzo chepakutanga.

29. Ndeapi ari migariro miviri inoratidzirwa mushanduro dzakawanda?

Up Shanduko: Muchiitiko ichi iyo yakashandurwa mutakuri frequency yakakura kupfuura inouya inotakura

Down Conversion: Muchiitiko ichi iyo yakashandurwa inotakura frequency idiki pane inowedzera mutakuri frequency.

 

Nekudaro, yakamanikana FM chiratidzo inoda zvakangofanana kufambisa bandwidth sechiratidzo che AM.

30. Chii chinonzi BW yeAM wave?

 Musiyano uripo pakati peaya maviri akanyanya ma frequency akaenzana nebandwidth ye AM wave.

 Naizvozvo, Bandwidth, B = (fc + fm) - (fc - fm) B = 2fm

31. Chii chinonzi BW yeDSB-SC chiratidzo?

Bandwidth, B = (fc + fm) - (fc - fm) B = 2f

Zviripachena kuti bandwidth yeDSB-SC modulation yakafanana neyakajairika AM mafungu.

32. Ndedzipi nzira dzekuburitsa masaini eDSB-SC?

Iyo DSB-SC chiratidzo inogona kuderedzwa nekutevera nzira mbiri:

- Synchronous yekuona nzira.

-Kushandisa envelopu detector mushure mekutakurazve mutakuri.

33. Nyora mashandisirwo eHilbert shanduko?

-Kugadzira masaini eSSB,

-Kugadzira ediki chikamu mhando mafirita,

- Nekumiririra kwebhendi pass masaini.

34. Ndedzipi nzira dzekugadzira SSB-SC chiratidzo?

SSB-SC masaini anogona kugadzirwa nenzira mbiri sepazasi:

-Kakawanda kusarura nzira kana nzira yekusefa.

-Pase kusarura nzira kana phase-shift nzira.

 

MASHOKO ERUGWARO

1. Amplitude modulation: Iyo modulation yemafungu nekusiyanisa makuriro ayo, inoshandiswa kunyanya senzira yekutepfenyura chiratidzo chekuteerera nekuchisanganisa neredhiyo inotakura wave.

 

2. Iyo modulation index: (kudzika kwemodulation) yechirongwa chemodulation inotsanangura nekuwanda kweiyo modulated shanduko yechiratidzo chekutakura inosiyana padanho rayo risina kurongeka.

 

3. Narrowband FM: Kana iyo modulation index yeFM ikachengetwa pasi pe1, saka iyo FM inogadzirwa inoonekwa seyakamanikana bhendi FM.

 

4. Frequency modulation (FM): iyo encoding yeruzivo mune inotakura wave nekusiyanisa iyo pakarepo frequency yemafungu.

 

5. Amplication: Iyo nhanho yakanyatsosarudzwa kuitira kuti isaremedze musanganisi kana masaini akasimba aripo, asi anogonesa masaini kuti akudzwe zvakakwana kuti ave nechokwadi chekuti chiratidzo chakanaka kune ruzha chiyero chinowanikwa.

 

6. Modulation: Maitiro ayo mamwe maitiro emutakuri wave anosiyana-siyana zvichienderana nechiratidzo chemharidzo.

Ndeupi musiyano uripo pakati peSW, MW neFM radio?

Pfupi (SW)

Shortwave radio ine hukuru hukuru - inogona kugamuchirwa zviuru zvemamaira kubva kune inofambisa, uye kutapurirana kunogona kuyambuka makungwa nemakomo. Izvi zvinoita kuti ive yakanakira kusvika kunyika dzisina nhepfenyuro yeredhiyo kana uko kutepfenyura kwechiKristu kunorambidzwa. Zvichitaurwa zviri nyore, redhiyo yeshortwave inokunda miganhu, ingave yenzvimbo kana yezvematongerwo enyika. SW transmissions iri nyore kugamuchira, zvakare: kunyange yakachipa, maredhiyo ari nyore anokwanisa kutora chiratidzo.

 

 infographic radio frequency mabhendi

 

Masimba eshortwave redhiyo anoita kuti inyatsokodzera Feba's key tarisiro nzvimbo ye Kutambudzwa Church. Semuyenzaniso, munzvimbo dzekuNorth East Africa uko kutepfenyura kwechitendero kwakarambidzwa mukati menyika, vatinoshanda navo veko vanogona kugadzira zvinyorwa zvekuteerera, vozvitumira kunze kwenyika uye voita kuti zvivhenekerwe kuburikidza nekufambiswa kweSW pasina njodzi yekupomerwa.  

 

Yemen parizvino iri kusangana nedambudziko rakakura uye rine chisimba nekukonana kuchikonzera dambudziko guru rekubatsira vanhu. Zvakare nekupa kurudziro pamweya, vatinoshanda navo vanotepfenyura zvinhu zvinogadzirisa zvazvino zvemagariro, hutano uye hutano kubva pamaonero echiKristu.  

 

Munyika umo maKristu anongoita 0.08% yehuwandu uye vanosangana nekutambudzwa nekuda kwekutenda kwavo, Chokwadi Church ivhiki nevhiki 30 maminetsi shortwave radio inotsigira vatendi veYemeni mumutauro weko. Vateereri vanokwanisa kuwana nhepfenyuro dzeredhiyo dzinotsigira vari pachivande uye vasingazivikanwe.  

 

Nzira ine simba yekusvika nharaunda dzakasarirwa nemhiri kwemiganhu, shortwave inoshanda zvikuru pakusvika kune vanhu vari kure neEvhangeri uye, munzvimbo dzinotambudzwa vaKristu, inosiya vateereri nevatepfenyuri vakasununguka kubva pakutya kutsiviwa. 

Medium-wave (MW)

Radhiyo yepakati-wave inowanzo shandiswa kutepfenyura munharaunda uye yakanakira nharaunda dzekumaruwa. Iine svikiro rekutapurirana renji, rinogona kusvika kunzvimbo dziri kure nechiratidzo chakasimba, chakavimbika. Medium-wave transmissions inogona kutepfenyurwa kuburikidza nemaredhiyo akasimbiswa - uko kune network.  

 

Mukadzi wekuIndia anoteerera redhiyo

 

In kuchamhembe kweIndia, zvitendero zvetsika zvomunzvimbomo zvinosiya vakadzi vari kurerutswa uye vakawanda vanovharirwa mudzimba dzavo. Kuvakadzi vari pachinzvimbo ichi, kutapurirana kubva kuFeba North India (kuchishandisa nhepfenyuro yakasimbiswa) inzira yakakosha nenyika dzekunze. Hurongwa hwayo hunoenderana nehunhu hunopa dzidzo, nhungamiro yezveutano uye ruzivo nezvekodzero dzevakadzi, zvichikurudzira nhaurirano pamusoro pezvemweya nevakadzi vanobata nhepfenyuro. Mumamiriro ezvinhu aya, redhiyo iri kuunza shoko retariro nekusimudzira kumadzimai anoteerera kumba.   

Frequency Modulation (FM)

Kune nhepfenyuro yakavakirwa munharaunda, FM ndimambo! 

 

Engineers up mast - Umoja FM

 

Radio Umoja FM kuDRC kwakatangwa nguva pfupi yadarika, nechinangwa chekupa nharaunda inzwi. FM inopa ipfupi-renji chiratidzo - kazhinji kune chero kupi mukati mekuona kweanotapurirana, ine yakanakisa ruzha mhando. Inogona kuvhara nzvimbo yeguta diki kana guta hombe - ichiita kuti ive yakanakira nhepfenyuro inotarisana nenzvimbo yakaganhurwa inotaura nezvenyaya dzenzvimbo. Kunyange zviteshi zveshortwave uye zvepakati-wave zvinogona kudhura kushanda, rezinesi renharaunda-yakavakirwa FM chiteshi rakachipa zvakanyanya. 

 

Aafno FM ichitepfenyura kubva musutukesi studio yavo

 

Afno FM, mubatsiri waFeba wekuNepal, anopa mazano akakosha ezveutano kunharaunda dzemuOkhaldhunga neDadeldhura. Kushandisa FM kunovabvumira kuisa ruzivo rwakakosha, zvakajeka, kunzvimbo dzakanangwa. Kumaruwa eNepal, kune kufungirana kwakapararira kwezvipatara uye mamwe mamiriro ekurapa akajairika anoonekwa seanorambidzwa. Pane kudiwa chaiko kwemazano ehutano ane ruzivo rwakakwana, asina-kutonga uye Afno FM inobatsira kuzadzisa chinodiwa ichi. Chikwata chinoshanda pamwe chete nezvipatara zvemuno kudzivirira nekurapa matambudziko akajairika ehutano (kunyanya avo vane rusarura rwakanangana navo) uye kugadzirisa kutya kwevanhu veko kwevashandi vehutano, kukurudzira vateereri kutsvaga kurapwa kuchipatara pavanenge vachida. FM inoshandiswawo muredhiyo dambudziko rinopindura - ine 20kg FM transmitter ichireruka zvakakwana kutakura kuenda kunharaunda dzakawirwa nenjodzi sechikamu che nyore kutakura sutukesi studio. 

Internet Radio

Iko kukurumidza kusimudzira kwewebhu-based tekinoroji inopa mikana mikuru yekutepfenyura redhiyo. Zviteshi zveInternet zvinokurumidza uye zviri nyore kuseta (dzimwe nguva zvinotora zvishoma sesvondo kuti usimuke uye ushande! Inogona kudhura zvishoma pane yenguva dzose kutumira.

 

Murume anoteerera online kuRadio Voice kuEgypt 

Uye nekuti iyo internet haina miganhu, webhu-based radio vateereri vanogona kusvika pasi rose. Chimwe chinokanganisa ndechekuti redhiyo yeInternet inotsamira pakuburitswa kweInternet uye kuwana kwemuteereri pakombiyuta kana smartphone.  

 

Munhamba yevanhu pasi rose inosvika mabhiriyoni 7.2, zvikamu zvitatu nezvishanu, kana kuti mabhiriyoni 4.2, havasati vava kuwana Indaneti nguva dzose. Mapurojekiti eredhiyo eredhiyo epaInternet parizvino haana kukodzera kune dzimwe nzvimbo dzevarombo uye dzisingasvikike pasi rose.

Chii chinonzi SW uye MW?
Iri zita rekuti "shortwave" rakatanga panguva yekutanga kweredhiyo mukutanga kwezana ramakore rechi20, apo radio spectrum yakakamurwa kuita refu wave (LW), medium wave (MW), uye mapfupi wave (SW) mabhendi zvichienderana nehurefu hwesaisai. .
AM neMW zvakafanana here?
AM, inomirira Amplitude Modulation (AM) ndiyo yekare nhepfenyuro yeredhiyo muUK. Izwi rekuti AM rinowanzo shandiswa kuvhara ese ari maviri Medium Wave (MW) uye Long Wave (LW).
Ndeupi musiyano uripo pakati peshortwave ne medium wave?
Nekuratidzwa kumwe chete kana kupfuura pakati pepasi neinosphere, chiratidzo cheredhiyo chipfupi-wave chinogona kugashirwa kure kure kubva kune chinofambisa. Uye yepakati wave kana mediumwave (MW) chikamu cheMedium frequency (MF) redhiyo bhendi rinoshandiswa kutepfenyura AM.
Iyo AM radio shortwave?
Inonzi shortwave nekuti, chaizvo chaizvo, masaisai anoburitswa mapfupi kupesana neakareba wave uye epakati wave, anoshandiswa neAM radio, uye wideband VHF (yakanyanya high frequency) inoshandiswa neFM radio. Aya masaisai mapfupi anogona kufamba zviuru zvemamaira kutenderera pasirese, saka redhiyo yeshortwave, nemasikirwo, ndeyepasirese.
Redhiyo ye AM yakafanana neyepakati wave?
Medium wave (MW) masaini anofambiswa achishandisa amplitude modulation (AM) uye mazwi anoshandiswa zvakasiyana. Masiginecha eFM anonyanya kufambiswa muiyo yakakwira frequency (VHF) kana Ultra high frequency (UHF) mabhendi uye anoshandiswa kunzwi (redhiyo) pamwe nevhidhiyo (TV) kutepfenyura.
Chii chinonzi frequency range ye AM?
Iyo AM bhendi muUnited States inovhara mafambiro kubva pa540 kHz kusvika 1700 kHz, mumatanho gumi kHz (10, 540, 550 ... 560, 1680, 1690). 1700 kHz muUnited States haisi kuwanikwa kuti ishandiswe kutepfenyura, asi yakachengeterwa kushandiswa kwemagetsi mashoma kwazvo eVafambi' Information Station.

Nei redhiyo ye AM ichiri kushandiswa?

Amplitude modulation (AM) ndiyo nzira yekare kwazvo yekushandura inozivikanwa. Nhepfenyuro dzekutanga dzaive AM, asi kunyangwe kare, CW kana masaini anoenderera neMorse kodhi yaive fomu ye AM. Ndidzo dzatinodaidza kuti on-off keying (OOK) kana amplitude-shift keying (ASK) nhasi.

 

Kunyangwe AM iri yekutanga uye yekare, ichiri kutenderera mune akawanda mafomu kupfuura zvaungafunga. AM iri nyore, yakaderera mutengo, uye inoshanda zvinoshamisa. Kunyangwe kudiwa kwedata rekumhanya-mhanya kwatitungamira takananga ku orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) seyakanyanya kunyatso shanda modulation scheme, AM ichiri kubatanidzwa muchimiro chequadrature amplitude modulation (QAM).

 

Chii chakaita kuti ndifunge nezve AM? Mukati medutu guru rechando remwedzi miviri kana kupfuura yapfuura, ndakawana yakawanda yemamiriro angu ekunze uye ruzivo rwechimbichimbi kubva kunhepfenyuro dze AM. Kunyanya kubva kuWOAI, iyo 50-kW chiteshi chave chiripo kwemakore. Ini ndinokahadzika kuti vaive vachiri kuburitsa 50 kW panguva yekudzima kwemagetsi, asi vaive mumhepo panguva yese yemamiriro ekunze. Mazhinji kana asiri mazhinji AM zviteshi zvaive kumusoro uye zvichimhanya pamagetsi ekuchengetedza. Akavimbika uye anonyaradza.

 

Kune anopfuura zviuru zvitanhatu zve AM zviteshi muUS nhasi. Uye vachiri nevateereri vakakura vevateereri, kazhinji vagari venzvimbo vanotsvaga mamiriro ekunze, traffic, uye ruzivo rwenhau. Vazhinji vachiri kuteerera mumotokari dzavo kana marori. Kune akasiyana siyana ehurukuro redhiyo anoratidza uye iwe uchiri kukwanisa kunzwa baseball kana nhabvu mutambo paAM. Sarudzo dzemimhanzi dzadzikira, sezvo vanga vachinyanya kuenda kuFM. Asi, kune dzimwe nyika uye Tejano mimhanzi zviteshi pa AM. Zvose zvinoenderana nevateereri veko, izvo zvakasiyana-siyana.

 

AM redhiyo inotepfenyura mu10-kHz yakafara chiteshi pakati pe530 ne1710 kHz. Zvese zviteshi zvinoshandisa shongwe, saka polarization yakamira. Mukati mezuva, kuparadzira kunonyanya kuita mafungu epasi ane huwandu hwemakiromita zana. Kune chikamu chikuru, zvinoenderana nehuwandu hwesimba, kazhinji 100 kW kana 5 kW. Kwete zviteshi zve1-kW zvakawanda zviripo, asi huwandu hwazvo huri pachena huri kure.

 

Husiku, hongu, kushambadza kunoshanduka sezvo ionized layers inoshanduka uye inoita kuti masaini afambe kuenda kure nekuda kwekugona kwawo kudzokororwa neayoni epamusoro dhizaini kugadzira akawanda masign hop ari madaro kusvika churu mamaira kana kupfuura. Kana iwe uine yakanaka AM redhiyo uye antenna refu iwe unogona kuteerera kune zviteshi munyika yese husiku.

 

AM zvakare ndiyo huru modulation yeshort-wave radio, yaunogona kunzwa pasi rese kubva pa5 kusvika 30 MHz. Ichiri imwe yenzvimbo huru dzeruzivo kune dzakawanda nyika dzechitatu. Kuteerera kwenguva pfupi-wave zvakare kunoramba kuri chinhu chakakurumbira.

 

Kunze kwekutepfenyura, AM ichiri kushandiswa kupi? Ham radio ichiri kushandisa AM; kwete mune yepakutanga yepamusoro-level fomu, asi seimwe sideband (SSB). SSB iAM ine mutakuri akadzvinyirirwa uye rimwe bhendi repadivi rakasefa, richisiya nhete 2,800-Hz chiteshi chezwi. Inoshandiswa zvakanyanya uye inoshanda zvakanyanya, kunyanya mumabhendi eham kubva pa3 kusvika ku30 MHz. Mauto uye mamwe maredhiyo emugungwa anoramba achishandisa imwe nzira yeSSB, zvakare.

 

Asi mira, handizvo zvoga. AM ichiri kuwanikwa mumaredhiyo eCitizen's Band. Plain-yekare AM inoramba iri mumusanganiswa, sezvinoita SSB. Zvakare, AM ndiyo huru modulation yeredhiyo yendege inoshandiswa pakati pendege neshongwe. Aya maredhiyo anoshanda mu118- kusvika 135-MHz bhendi. Sei AM? Handisati ndambozvifunga, asi zvinoshanda zvakanaka.

 

Chekupedzisira, AM ichiri nesu muQAM fomu, musanganiswa wechikamu uye amplitude modulation. Mazhinji chiteshi cheOFDM anoshandisa imwe fomu yeQAM kuwana iwo epamusoro data mareti avanokwanisa kuendesa.

 

Zvakadaro, AM haisati yafa, uye kutaura zvazviri zvinoita kunge Kuchembera Hukuru.

Chii chinonzi AM Transmitter uye Inoshanda Sei?

Chii chinonzi AM Transmitter?

Matransmitter anofambisa masaini masaini anozivikanwa se AM transmitters, anozivikanwa zvakare se AM radio transmitter kana AM nhepfenyuro transmitter, nekuti anoshandiswa kutamisa masaini eredhiyo kubva kune rimwe divi kuenda kune rimwe.

 

FMUSER solid-state 1000 watt AM transmitter-blue background-700 pixels.png

 

Aya ma transmitters anoshandiswa mune yepakati wave (MW) uye mapfupi wave (SW) frequency mabhendi ekutepfenyura kwe AM.

 

bhendi reMW rine mafrequency ari pakati pe550 KHz ne1650 KHz, uye bhendi reSW rine mafrequency anotangira pa3 MHz kusvika pa30 MHz. Iwo marudzi maviri e AM transmitters anoshandiswa zvichibva pamasimba avo ekufambisa ndeaya:

 

  • Chikamu chepamusoro
  • Chikamu Chakaderera

 

High level transmitters anoshandisa yakakwirira level modulation, uye yakaderera level transmitters anoshandisa yakaderera level modulation. Sarudzo pakati peaya maviri modulation zvirongwa zvinoenderana nesimba rekutumira re AM transmitter.

 

Mumatapfenyuro enhepfenyuro, uko simba rekutumira rinogona kunge riri reiyo kilowatts, yakakwirira level modulation inoshandiswa. Mune yakaderera magetsi transmitters, uko chete mashoma watts ekufambisa simba anodiwa, yakaderera level modulation inoshandiswa..

High-Level Uye Yakaderera-Level Transmitters

Pazasi nhamba inoratidza iyo block dhizaini yeakakwira-level uye yakaderera-level transmitters. Musiyano wekutanga pakati peaya maviri transmitters isimba rekusimudzira remutakuri uye modulating masaini.

Mufananidzo (a) unoratidza dhiyabhorosi dhizaini repamusoro-level AM transmitter.

 

Block Dhiagiramu yeHigh Level AM Transmitter

 

Mufananidzo (a) wakadhirowewa kuitira kutapurirana odhiyo. Mukufambiswa kwepamusoro-soro, masimba emutakuri uye modulating masaini anokwidziridzwa asati aaisa kune iyo modulator nhanho, sezvakaratidzwa mumufananidzo (a). Mune yakaderera-level modulation, masimba e maviri ekuisa masaini eiyo modulator nhanho haana kukwidziridzwa. Iyo inodiwa yekufambisa simba inowanikwa kubva padanho rekupedzisira reiyo transmitter, iyo kirasi C simba amplifier.

 

Zvikamu zvakasiyana-siyana zvemufananidzo (a) ndezvi:

 

  • Carrier oscillator
  • Buffer amplifier
  • Kakawanda kuwedzera
  • Simba amplifier
  • Audio cheni
  • Modulated kirasi C simba amplifier

Mutakuri Oscillator

Iyo inotakura oscillator inogadzira chiratidzo chekutakura, icho chiri muRF renji. Kuwanda kwemutakuri nguva dzose kwakanyanyisa. Nekuti zvakanyanya kuoma kuburitsa yakakwira ma frequency ane yakanaka frequency kugadzikana, inotakura oscillator inogadzira sub yakawanda ine inodiwa inotakura frequency.

 

Iyi sub-multiple frequency inowedzerwa neiyo frequency multiplier nhanho kuti uwane inodiwa inotakura frequency.

 

Kupfuurirazve, crystal oscillator inogona kushandiswa mune ino nhanho kugadzira yakaderera frequency inotakura ine yakanakisa frequency kugadzikana. Iyo frequency multiplier nhanho inozowedzera kuwanda kwemutakuri kune kukosha kwayo kunodiwa.

Buffer Amplifier

Chinangwa chebuffer amplifier chakapetwa kaviri. Iyo inotanga kuenderana nekubuda kweiyo impedance yeanotakura oscillator neiyo impedance yekupinza yeiyo frequency multiplier, nhanho inotevera yeanotakura oscillator. Iyo inobva yaparadzanisa inotakura oscillator uye frequency multiplier.

 

Izvi zvinodikanwa kuitira kuti iyo yakawanda irege kutora yakakura ikozvino kubva kune inotakura oscillator. Kana izvi zvikaitika, kuwanda kweiyo carrier oscillator haizorambi yakagadzikana.

Frequency Multiplier

Iyo sub-multiple frequency yechiratidzo chekutakura, inogadzirwa nemutakuri oscillator, ikozvino inoshandiswa kune frequency multiplier kuburikidza nebuffer amplifier. Iyi nhanho inozivikanwawo se harmonic jenareta. Iyo frequency multiplier inogadzira yakakwira maharmonics emutakuri oscillator frequency. Iyo frequency multiplier idunhu rakamisikidzwa rinogona kumisikidzwa kune inodiwa inotakura frequency iyo inofanirwa kutapurirana.

Power Amplifier

Simba rechiratidzo chekutakura rinobva rawedzerwa muchikamu chemagetsi amplifier. Ichi ndicho chinodiwa chakakosha chepamusoro-level transmitter. Kirasi C simba amplifier inopa yakakwira simba ikozvino pulses yechiratidzo chekutakura pakubuda kwayo.

Sravana Sameeralu Serial XNUMXth Audio Chain

Chiratidzo chekuteerera chinotapurwa chinowanikwa kubva kumakrofoni, sezvakaratidzwa mumufananidzo (a). Iyo yekuteerera mutyairi amplifier inokwidziridza voltage yechiratidzo ichi. Uku kukwidziridzwa kunodiwa kutyaira iyo odhiyo simba amplifier. Tevere, kirasi A kana kirasi B simba amplifier inokudza simba reiyo odhiyo chiratidzo.

Modulated Kirasi C Amplifier

Iyi ndiyo nhanho yekubuda kweiyo transmitter. Iyo modulating odhiyo siginecha uye inotakura chiratidzo, mushure mekusimudzira simba, inoiswa kune ino modulating nhanho. Iko modulation inoitika panguva ino. Iyo kirasi C amplifier inokwidziridzawo simba reiyo AM siginecha kune inodzokororwa yekufambisa simba. Ichi chiratidzo chinopedzisira chapfuudzwa kune antenna., iyo inopenya chiratidzo munzvimbo yekutapurirana.

 

Vimba Dhidhiyo yeLow Level AM Transmitter

 

Iyo yakaderera-level AM transmitter inoratidzwa mumufananidzo (b) yakafanana neyepamusoro-level transmitter, kunze kwekuti masimba emutakuri uye masaini masaini haana kukwidziridzwa. Aya masaini maviri anoshandiswa zvakananga kune modulated kirasi C simba amplifier.

 

Modulation inoitika pachikuva, uye simba reiyo modulated siginecha inokwidziridzwa kune inodiwa yekufambisa simba nhanho. Iyo antenna inotumira inobva yatumira chiratidzo.

Kubatanidzwa kweKubuda Danho uye Antenna

Iyo yekubuda nhanho yeiyo modulated kirasi C simba amplifier inodyisa chiratidzo kune inotumira antenna.

 

Kuti utumire yakanyanya simba kubva padanho rekubuda kuenda kune antenna zvinodikanwa kuti iyo impedance yezvikamu zviviri izvi ifanane. Kune izvi, network inoenderana inodiwa.

 

Kufananidza pakati pezviviri izvi kunofanirwa kuve kwakakwana pane zvese zvinotapurira ma frequency. Sezvo kufananidzwa kuchidiwa pama frequency akasiyana, inductors uye capacitor inopa impedance dzakasiyana pama frequency akasiyana anoshandiswa mumatiweki anoenderana.

 

Iyo yekufananidza network inofanirwa kugadzirwa uchishandisa izvi zvingori zvikamu. Izvi zvinoratidzwa pazasi Mufananidzo (c).

 

Double Pi Matching Network

 

Iyo inofananidzira network inoshandiswa kubatanidza iyo inobuda nhanho yeanotumira uye antenna inonzi kaviri π-network.

 

Iyi network inoratidzwa pamufananidzo (c). Iyo ine maviri inductors, L1 uye L2 uye maviri capacitor, C1 uye C2. Hukoshi hwezvinhu izvi zvinosarudzwa zvekuti iyo impedance yekupinza yetiweki pakati pe1 ne1'. Inoratidzwa mumufananidzo (c) inofananidzwa neinobuda impedance yedanho rekubuda reiyo transmitter.

 

Kupfuurirazve, iyo yakabuda impedance yetiweki inofananidzwa neiyo impedance yeantenna.

 

Iyo yakapetwa kaviri π inofananidzira network inosefa zvisingadiwe frequency zvikamu zvinoonekwa pakubuda kwechikamu chekupedzisira cheiyo transmitter.

 

Kubuda kweiyo modulated kirasi C simba amplifier inogona kunge iine yakakwirira harmonics, seyechipiri neyechitatu harmonics, izvo zvisingadiwe zvakanyanya.

 

Iyo frequency mhinduro yetiweki inofananidzwa inoiswa zvekuti aya asingadiwe epamusoro maharmonics anotsikirirwa, uye chete chiratidzo chinodiwa chinosanganiswa kune antenna..

AM kana FM Transmitter? Misiyano Yakakosha 

Iyo kanyanga iripo panoperera chikamu chekutumira, inoendesa modulated wave. Muchitsauko chino, ngatikurukurei nezve AM uye FM nhepfenyuro.

AM Rinofambisa

AM anotepfenyurisa anotora odhiyo chiratidzo seyakapinza uye anonunura amplitude modulated wave kune kanyanga sechinhu chinobuda kuti chiendeswe. Iyo block block ye AM transmitter inoratidzwa mumufananidzo unotevera.

 

 

Kushanda kwe AM transmitter kunogona kutsanangurwa sezvinotevera: 

 

  • Iyo odhiyo chiratidzo kubva pakuburitsa maikorofoni inotumirwa kune pre-gudzazwi, iyo inosimudzira danho reiyo modulating chiratidzo.
  • Iyo RF oscillator inogadzira iyo inotakura chiratidzo.
  • Ose modulating uye anotakura chiratidzo anotumirwa kuna AM modulator.
  • Power gudzazwi inoshandiswa kuwedzera masimba mazinga e AM wave. Iyi wave inozopfuudzwa kune iyo antenna kuti ipfuudzirwe.

FM Transmitter

FM inotepfenyurisa ndicho chikamu chese, icho chinotora iyo odhiyo chiratidzo seyakapinza uye inonunura FM wave kune kanyanga sechinhu chinobuda chinofanira kutapurirwa. Iyo block block ye FM transmitter inoratidzwa mune inotevera nhamba.

 

 

Kushanda kweFM transmitter kunogona kutsanangurwa sezvinotevera:

 

  • Iyo odhiyo chiratidzo kubva pakuburitsa maikorofoni inotumirwa kune pre-gudzazwi, iyo inosimudzira danho reiyo modulating chiratidzo.
  • Iyi siginari inozopfuudzwa kune yakakwira yekupfuura firita, iyo inoshanda senge pre-yekusimbisa network kusefa kunze kweruzha uye nekuvandudza iyo chiratidzo kune ruzha reshiyo.
  • Iyi chiratidzo inoenderera ichipfuura kune iyo FM modulator wedunhu.
  • Iyo oscillator wedunhu inogadzira yakakwira frequency frequency inotakura, iyo inotumirwa kune modulator pamwe chete neiyo modulating chiratidzo.
  • Matanho akati wandei ehuwandu hwekuwandisa anoshandiswa kuwedzera iyo yekushandisa frequency. Kunyangwe ipapo, simba rechiratidzo harina kukwana kutakura. Nekudaro, RF simba gudzazwi rinoshandiswa kumagumo kuwedzera simba rechiratidzo chakamisikidzwa. Iyi FM modulated kuburitsa inozopfuudzwa kune iyo antenna kuti ipfuudzirwe.
AM kana FM: Maitiro ekusarudza Yakanakisa Broadcast System?

Kuenzanisa kwe AM uye FM Zviratidzo

Ose ari maviri AM uye FM system anoshandiswa mune zvekutengesa uye zvisiri zvekutengesa zvikumbiro. Zvakadai senhepfenyuro neterevhizheni. Imwe neimwe sisitimu ine kwayo kwayo kwayo uye kwayakaipira. Mune Yakasarudzika application, AM system inogona kuve yakakodzera kupfuura yeFM system. Saka izvo zviviri zvakakosha zvakaenzana kubva pakuona kwekushandisa.

Kubatsira kweFM masisitimu pamusoro pe AM Systems

Iyo amplitude yeFM wave inoramba iripo. Izvi zvinopa vagadziri vehurongwa mukana wekubvisa ruzha kubva kune yakagamuchirwa chiratidzo. Izvi zvinoitwa muFM vanogashira nekushandisa amplitude limiter circuit kuitira kuti ruzha rwuri pamusoro pekudzikamisa amplitude rudzvinyirwe. Saka, iyo FM system inoonekwa seruzha immune system. Izvi hazvigoneke mumasisitimu eAM nekuti chiratidzo chebhendi chinotakurwa nekusiyana kweamplitude iyo pachayo uye envelopu yechiratidzo che AM haigone kuchinjwa.

 

Mazhinji esimba muchiratidzo cheFM anotakurwa nemabhendi epadivi. Kune yakakwirira kukosha kweiyo modulation index, mc, chikamu chikuru chesimba rose chiri mukati mabhendi ekumativi, uye chiratidzo chekutakura chine simba shoma. Kusiyana neizvi, muhurongwa hweAM, chikamu chimwe chete muzvitatu chesimba rose chinotakurwa nemabhendi eparutivi uye zvikamu zviviri muzvitatu zvesimba rose zvinorasika muchimiro chesimba rekutakura.

 

- Mune FM masisitimu, simba reiyo inofambiswa chiratidzo zvinoenderana nehukuru hweiyo unmodulated inotakura chiratidzo, uye nekudaro inogara. Mukupesana, mune AM masisitimu, iro simba rinoenderana neiyo modulation index ma. Iyo yakanyanya kubvumidzwa simba muAM masisitimu i100 muzana kana ma ari kubatana. Kurambidzwa kwakadaro hakushande int kesi yeFM masisitimu. Izvi zvinodaro nekuti iyo yakazara simba muFM system yakazvimirira pane modulation index, mf uye frequency deviation fd. Naizvozvo, mashandisirwo emagetsi akanyanya muFM system.

 

Mune AM system, nzira chete yekudzikisa ruzha ndeyekuwedzera simba rinofambiswa rechiratidzo. Kushanda uku kunowedzera mutengo we AM system. Mune FM system, iwe unogona kuwedzera frequency kutsauka mune inotakura chiratidzo kudzikisa ruzha. kana iyo frequency kutsauka kwakakwira, ipapo iyo inowirirana mutsauko muamplitude ye baseband chiratidzo inogona kudzoserwa nyore. kana frequency kutsauka iri diki, ruzha 'runogona kuvharidzira iyi mutsauko uye frequency kutsauka haigone kushandurirwa mukuenderana kwayo amplitude musiyano. Nekudaro, nekuwedzera frequency kutsauka muiyo FM siginecha, iyo ruzha mhedzisiro yaanogona kuderedza. Iko hakuna kupihwa muAM system yekudzikisa ruzha nechero nzira, kunze kwekuwedzera simba rayo rinofambiswa.

 

Muchiratidzo cheFM, chiteshi cheFM chiri padyo chinoparadzaniswa nemabhendi evarindi. Mune FM system hapana chiratidzo chekufambisa kuburikidza nenzvimbo yespectrum kana bhendi revarindi. Naizvozvo, hapana kana kukanganiswa kwematanho ari padyo neFM. Nekudaro, mune AM system, hapana bhendi revarindi rakapihwa pakati pematanho maviri ari padyo. Naizvozvo, panogara paine kupindira kwe AM radio nhepfenyuro kunze kwekunge iyo inogamuchirwa siginecha yakasimba zvakakwana kudzvanya chiratidzo cheiyo chiteshi.

Izvo zvakashata zveFM masisitimu pamusoro pe AM masisitimu

Kune huwandu husingaverengeki hwemabhendi epadivi muchiratidzo cheFM uye saka iyo theoretical bandwidth yeFM system haina magumo. Iyo bandwidth yeFM system inoganhurwa nekutonga kwaCarson, asi ichiri yakakwira zvakanyanya, kunyanya muWBFM. Mune AM masisitimu, bandwidth inongopeta kaviri iyo modulation frequency, iri shoma pane iyo yeWBFN. Izvi zvinoita kuti maFM masisitimu adhure pane AM masisitimu.

 

Midziyo yeFM system yakaoma kupfuura AM masisitimu nekuda kwekutenderera kutenderera kweFM masisitimu; ichi ndicho chimwe chikonzero chekuti FM masisitimu anodhura AM masisitimu.

 

Nzvimbo inogashira yeFM system idiki pane AM system nekudaro chiteshi cheFM chinongotenderwa kunzvimbo dzemumaguta ukuwo AM radio nhepfenyuro inogona kugamuchirwa chero kupi zvako pasirese. Iyo FM system inotumira masaini kuburikidza nemutsara wekuona kupararira, umo chinhambwe chiri pakati pekutumira uye kugamuchira antenna haifanirwe kuve yakawanda. mune AM system masiginecha eshort wave bhendi zviteshi zvinofambiswa kuburikidza nemuchadenga maseru anoratidza masaisai eredhiyo pamusoro penzvimbo yakakura.

Ndedzipi Mhando Dzakasiyana dze AM Transmitters?

Nekuda kwekushandiswa kwakasiyana, AM Transmitter yakakamurwa zvakanyanya kuita veruzhinji AM Transmitter (DIY uye yakaderera simba AM transmitters) uye yekushambadzira AM Transmitter (yeredhiyo yemauto kana yenyika AM nhepfenyuro).

 

Commerce AM Transmitter ndechimwe chezvinhu zvinomiririra zvigadzirwa mumunda weRF. 

 

Iyi mhando yeredhiyo nhepfenyuro inogona kushandisa yakakura AM nhepfenyuro antennas (guyed mast, nezvimwewo) kutepfenyura masaini pasi rose. 

 

Nekuti AM haigone kuvharika zviri nyore, yekutengesa AM transmitter inowanzo shandiswa nhema dzezvematongerwo enyika kana mauto ehurongwa hwekunyepedzera pakati penyika.

 

Zvakafanana neiyo FM kutepfenyura transmitter, iyo AM nhepfenyuro inotepfenyura inogadzirwa zvakare neakasiyana magetsi kubuda. 

 

Tichitora iyo FMUSER semuenzaniso, yavo yekutengesa AM transmitter series inosanganisira 1KW AM transmitter, 5KW AM transmitter, 10kW AM transmitter, 25kW AM transmitter, 50kW AM transmitter, 100kW AM transmitter, uye 200kW AM transmitter. 

 

Aya ma AM transmitters anovakwa neyakagadzirwa-yakagadzirwa yakasimba state cabinet, uye ine AUI kure kudzora masisitimu uye modular zvikamu dhizaini, inotsigira inoenderera yemhando yepamusoro AM masaini kubuda.

 

Nekudaro, kusiyana nekugadzirwa kweredhiyo yeFM, kuvaka AM ​​transmitter station ndeyemitengo yakakwira. 

 

Kune vatepfenyuri, kutanga chiteshi chitsva che AM kunodhura, kusanganisira:

 

- Mutengo wekutenga uye kutakura kwe AM radio michina. 

- Mutengo wekubhadhara vashandi uye kuisirwa kwemidziyo.

-Mutengo wekushandisa AM nhepfenyuro marezinesi.

- Nezvimwewo. 

 

Naizvozvo, kune zviteshi zveredhiyo zvemunyika kana zvemauto mutengesi akavimbika ane mhinduro-yekumira anodiwa nekukurumidza kune inotevera AM kutepfenyura michina yekugovera:

 

Simba repamusoro AM Transmitter (mazana ezviuru zvemagetsi ekubuda akadai se100KW kana 200KW)

AM kutepfenyura antenna system (AM antenna uye shongwe yeredhiyo, antenna accessories, yakaoma mitsara yekufambisa, nezvimwewo)

AM bvunzo mitoro uye zvishandiso zvekubatsira. 

Etc.

 

Kana dziri dzimwe nhepfenyuro, mhinduro yemutengo wakaderera inokwezva, semuenzaniso:

 

-Tenga AM Transmitter ine simba rakaderera (senge 1kW AM Transmitter)

- Tenga yakashandiswa AM Broadcast transmitter

-Kurenda AM radio tower yatovepo

- Nezvimwewo.

 

Semugadziri ane yakakwana AM nhepfenyuro yemidziyo yekugovera ketani, FMUSER ichabatsira kugadzira yakanakisa mhinduro kubva kumusoro kusvika kutsoka zvichienderana nebhajeti yako, unogona kuwana yakakwana AM nhepfenyuro nhepfenyuro kubva kusimba yakasimba simba AM transmitter kuenda ku AM test load uye zvimwe midziyo. , tinya apa kuti udzidze zvakawanda nezve FMUSER AM redhiyo mhinduro.

 

Ivo vevanhu AM Transmitter vanonyanya kuwanda pane yekushambadzira AM transmitter sezvo ivo vane mutengo wakaderera.

 

Ivo vanogona kukamurwa zvakanyanya kuita DIY AM transmitter uye yakaderera simba AM transmitter. 

 

Kune DIY AM transmitters, vamwe vevanofarira redhiyo vanowanzo shandisa bhodhi rakareruka kubatanidza zvinhu zvakaita seaudio mukati, antenna, transformer, oscillator, tambo yemagetsi uye tambo yepasi.

 

Nekuda kwebasa rayo rakareruka, DIY AM transmitter inogona kungova nehukuru hwehafu yemichindwe. 

 

Ndicho chikonzero nei iyi mhando ye AM transmitter ichingodhura gumi nemaviri emadhora, kana inogona kugadzirwa mahara. Iwe unogona kunyatso kutevedzera online tutorial vhidhiyo kune DIY imwe.

 

Low power AM transmitters anotengesa nemadhora zana. Ivo vanowanzo rack mhando kana kuoneka mudiki rectangular simbi bhokisi. Aya ma transmitters akaomarara kupfuura DIY AM transmitters uye ane vazhinji vadiki vatengesi.

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    TAURA NESU

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    FMUSER INTERNATIONAL GROUP LIMITED.

    Isu tinogara tichipa vatengi vedu zvigadzirwa zvakavimbika uye masevhisi ane hanya.

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